by Lucas Szkopinski
When, in 1928, Albania became kingdom, it gained not only a king and a queen mother but also a prince and six princesses. Those who know about their existence usually treat them as a single item, royal sextuplets. Yet they were not identical and their life, as strongly related to their brother’s as it was, could not be called uneventful. Even the probably best known anecdote concerning the sisters seems completely groundless. The oft-repeated story, also involving Archduke Otto of Austria, has at least a few versions. One of them runs as follows:
In the early 1930s, in a hotel on the Côte d’Azur, three of them found themselves in the same elevator with Otto von Habsburg. Otto bowed and wished them a good morning, but the princesses turned their heads. “Why didn’t you accept the archduke’s greeting?” asked their companion, an Albanian diplomat. “He has fallen,” the eldest sister responded with a contempt that only a new – or a very old – dynasty could master [Fenyvesi 1979: 233].
About seventy years later, when I asked about the alleged and highly publicised meeting, the Archduke said he didn’t recall it ever happening: “It is the first time I ever heard about this” [private communication with HIRH Archduke Otto of Austria, 26th September 2007]. That hardly surprises because the Princesses’ story, and in many aspects also their brother’s one, went through so many transformations that the existing myth hardly reflects the reality. So who were these six mysterious Princesses?
Their father, Xhemal Pasha Zogu was hereditary Governor of Mati region. He had one son, Xhelal, with his first wife, Melek Hanem. After her death, Xhemal married Sadije Toptani (1876-1934), who gave him one more son, the future King of the Albanians, and six daughters: Adile, Nafije, Senije, Myzejen, Ruhije and Maxhide. One might say that a certain mystery accompanied them from the very beginning as their exact dates of birth are not known for sure. Soon after King Zog’s accession, the dates were given as 1893 (Adile), 1896 (Nafije), 1903 (Senije), 1905 (Myzejen), 1906 (Ruhije) and 1907 (Maxhide) [Almanach de Gotha 1929]. A few years later they were changed respectively into 1894, 1900, 1908, 1909, 1910 and 1911 [Almanach de Gotha 1936]. However, as Princess Adile’s date of birth could be 1890, as indicated on her grave at Thiais Cemetery in Paris, the youngest of her sisters could very well be born before 1905. As far as Xhemal Pasha Zogu is concerned, he probably died in 1908 although different sources indicate different dates (from c.1905 till 1911). His daughters’ “rejuvenating process” might not be without impact on the doubts concerning the year of their father’s death. After Xhemal’s passing, most probably due to his widow’s influence, Sadije’s son, Ahmet Zogu, rather than his elder half-brother, Xhelal, succeeded his father as the clan chief and Governor of Mati. It was also the future King who became a real father figure to his sisters whose devotion, admiration and borderless love to their brother was to remain unchanged until their death. Years passed by and Ahmet Zogu worked his way to the top of Albanian politics as Interior Minister, Prime Minister and President. Finally, on 1st September 1928, the National Assembly proclaimed him King Zog I of the Albanians.
Princess Nafije and Esat "Tati" Kryeziu, knowen as The Prince of Kosova
When King Zog ascended the throne, the immediate members of his family also gained royal titles. Sadije Zogu became Her Majesty the Queen Mother and each of the new Monarch’s siblings (that is his only half-brother and six sisters) was raised to the title of Prince or Princess. It is important to observe, however, that according to article 96 of the new, royalist Constitution, none of these latter titles was followed by a territorial designation. Nor was it linked to any qualification. Therefore, from the legal point of view, Myzejen Zogu, to use her example, became Princess Myzejen (Zogu) rather than Her Highness Princess Myzejen of Albania, as sometimes indicated. These titles were not hereditary and could be removed by the Sovereign through a royal decree. This is of course a legal interpretation of what was the formal status of the King’s family. The unofficial way of addressing various members of the clan turned out to be slightly different and rather confusing as will be later explained.
At the moment the Kingdom was installed, two of King Zog’s sisters had already founded families of their own. Princess Adile married Emin Bey Agolli-Doshishti. The couple had three sons (Salih, Hysein and Sherafedin) and two daughters (Teri and Danush). One more family member lived in Princess Adile’s household - Emin’s sister, Ruhije. She previously married Prince Xhelal. When they separated, Ruhije went to live with her brother and sister-in-law. She later followed the Royal Family in exile and died in Cannes in 1956. Princess Adile usually kept away from the public eye, her upmost priority being her family and children.
Princess Nafije’s destiny was a much more tragic one. She married Cena Bey Kryeziu. Being at first Ahmet Zogu’s political ally, he became Governor of Scutari and Interior Minister in Zogu’s Government. Later their political ways considerably diverged and their co-operation ended in a serious disagreement. On 14th October 1927, Cena Kryeziu was shot dead in Prague where he had been sent as the Albanian Minister in Czechoslovakia. This came as a huge blow to Nafije, whose son, Esat (known as Tati), born in 1923, was not yet four years old at the time of his father’s murder. After her husband’s sudden death, the Princess, profoundly depressed, was never the same again, remaining the most reserved and self-effacing of the sisters.
The Queen Mother, her daughters, Princesses Adile’s younger children and Tati Kryeziu lived basically together forming one big and closely tied family clan. Elvira and Skender Zogu, Prince Xhelal’s eldest surviving offspring, also joined this group. The King was extremely devoted to his nephews and nieces and he was much involved in their upbringing and education. Adile’s sons had already been sent to military schools in France and Italy. Teri and Danush Doshishti stayed with their mother in Albania until the late 1930s when they went to school in England. People sometimes called them princes and princesses and although these were purely courtesy titles they were also often used by the foreign press. Of all the children, Tati certainly was his uncle’s favourite. The most probable explanation for this very special bond existing between the King and his nephew was the boy’s difficult family situation. After Cena Kryeziu’s assassination, Princess Nafije’s brother must have found it only too natural to assume a father-figure role in young Tati’s life. Whatever the truth was, during the King’s bachelor years, many considered the boy Zog’s heir presumptive. Various sources claim that Tati received from the King a personal title - “Prince of Kosova”. This should be considered as a highly unofficial courtesy, just like in case of Tati’s cousins and their “princely” titles. That is simply because, according to the Constitution, the King was not allowed to confer any titles other than the ones mentioned in article 96. As far as the position of the heir to the throne was concerned, the Sovereign could not designate one without this candidature being approved by the Parliament. These legal aspects had of course no impact on the King’s particularly affectionate relation with Tati Kryeziu who, although never formally Zog’s heir, remained close to his uncle for the rest of his life. In 1952, Tati married Munira Sabry, but the marriage ended in divorce. He passed away in Cannes, in 1993, and was laid to rest in King Zog’s tomb at Thiais cemetery.
Although King Zog did his best to divide his time and affection equally to every of his sisters, Princess Senije is said to be his favourite one. She fully reciprocated this feeling and always loved to remain close to him. Her wedding to Prince Mehmet Abid of Turkey (1905-1973), son of Sultan Abdulhamid II of Turkey, took place in 1936. The Monarch’s new brother-in-law soon became Albanian Minister in Paris. This nomination came to the cosmopolitan Prince as a considerable relief, the perspective of residing in Albania certainly not being his greatest dream. Unfortunately, the marriage was not a particularly happy one and it ended in divorce. The couple had no children.
Queen Mother Sadije’s death on 25th November 1934, came as a huge blow for the Royal Family. She was not only an essential figure uniting all her children and grandchildren but also an important element of Zogist Albania. With the King remaining unmarried, Sadije was being presented as the mother of the nation and, according to many sources, she was indeed quite a remarkable person. After her husband’s death, she became an unofficial head of the Zogu clan due to her son’s minority. Ahmet succeeded his father, Xhemal, as Governor of the Mati region at an early age and his mother was determined to make sure that the boy’s position was secure. Thanks to her intelligence and the strength of her character, she was very much involved in the political and social life of her region. Her many charitable initiatives are said to have endeared Sadije to her people. She might have sensed her son’s charisma when he was still a child or she was simply bent on having it developed in him. Whichever of the two is closer to the truth, the fact is that Sadije Zogu played a vital role in the future King of the Albanians’s immense success. Daughter of Emin Bey Toptani and issue of an old and important Albanian family, Sadije was a patriot at heart and she wanted her son, stepson and daughters to share her values and love for Albania..
After the monarchy was proclaimed, the four younger Princesses assumed some royal obligations. The King wanted them to become symbols of modern Albanian women. That is why he sent them to Western Europe so that they could learn a little bit of languages. They also had piano and dancing classes at home. Princesses Senije, Myzejen, Ruhije and Maxhide loved travelling abroad and their special fondness for shopping was widely known. They enjoyed horseback riding and spending the hot season in the royal summer palace in Durazzo. As far as royal engagements were concerned, according to the official sources, each of the four sisters devoted her time to different social domains like the health care (Senije, who also became the Head of the Albanian Red Cross), education and women’s rights (Ruhije), culture and arts (Myzejen) and sports (Maxhide). The two remaining sisters, Adile and Nafije, usually kept away from the public scene while Princess Adile was additionally much involved in the running of the Royal Household.
This family routine was brought to an end in early 1938, when King Zog announced his engagement to Countess Geraldine Apponyi de Nagy-Appony. Shortly afterwards, he organized for his three youngest sisters, Ruhije, Myzejen and Maxhide, a trip of their lifetime – a visit to the USA and England. The journey started on 20th February 1938 in Naples. The Princesses sailed to the USA aboard Conte di Savoia. It was noted by the press that they did not call on the Italian Crown Prince and his wife while in Naples. However, a “friend” explained that the sisters were simply afraid of missing the boat. Various speculations were also published as far as the possible reasons for this visit were concerned. The main and official one was that the Princesses wanted to do some shopping before the forthcoming wedding and “learn more of America”, but the royal romance-seeking journalists distrusted educational and shopping motives and declared it a “matrimonial hunting expedition” [The Charlestone Daily Mail (UP), 19th February 1938, p.1]. This etiquette was to haunt the royal party throughout their trip. One more semi-official and certainly political aim of the US visit appeared in some reports. They claimed that King Zog wanted his three youngest sisters to convince Bishop Fan Noli to return to his homeland. The exact schedule of the trip did not seem entirely fixed. Although New York, Washington, Boston and Chicago could be sure to receive the royal visitors due to large Albanian communities living in these cities. Myzejen, Ruhije and Maxhide were described as “pretty, athletic and smartly gowned in a country where any women still wear the Mohammedan veil” [Edwardsville Intelligencer, 19th February 1938, p.2]. In another report, the author acknowledged their sport and social interests:
The three sisters are sports enthusiasts and excellent horsewomen, sometimes appearing in the glittering uniform of officers of Albania's lone cavalry regiment. […] Last year they led a move to emancipate Albanian women from the centuries-old Turkish custom of wearing veils, startling their brother's subjects by appearing in public and at social events not only barefaced but in modern European clothes. Today few Albanian women wear veils [Monitor-Index & Democrat (AP), 23rd February 1938].
After a journey of more than a week, the Princesses reached New York on 28th February. The journalists and a curious crowd had to wait, however, until all other passengers left the Conte di Savoia, before they could finally take a look at the royal sisters. According to a very meticulous description published the next day:
Two [of the Princesses] wore leopard skin—some called it civet cat—coats and the third wore beige cloth. Two wore black shoes, one wore brown. All wore sheer stockings of silk. All wore tiny turbans. Two had filmy veils. Two had brown eyes, one had green eyes. All three wore heavy makeup. Two had black dresses, one had brown. And all smiled continuously, quietly, sometimes, it seemed, eternally, through the smoke and laughter and shouts as they sat in the Colonna room of the great liner—Sophocles, Homer and the Venus De Milo at their back in marble reproductions [AP, 28th February 1938].
As the Princesses did not speak English, Mr Faik Konitza, Albanian Minister in America, accepted the role of interpreter during a short press conference that followed. It almost finished when the journalists annoyed the royal ladies and Mr Konitza with their claims of a matrimonial nature of the royal visit. "I thought you were going to ask decent questions" was the man’s reply and when the press insisted even further he sharply cut the subject by saying "Why don't you grow up?" [The Oshkosh Northwestern (UP), 1st March 1938]. A formal statement was later released in the sisters’ name to inform that the Princesses would visit the First Lady, Mrs Roosevelt, and that they would like to see Yellowstone Park, meet American girl scouts and “learn something about the social work being done here on behalf of the needy” [The Corpus Christi Times (UP), 1st March 1938]. It was also underlined that the Princesses had come to the USA as tourists and they hoped that they privacy would be respected. The royal party stayed at the Ritz, adequately decorated with Albanian flags.
On 3rd March the sisters visited Empire State Building having Al Smith as a guide. When he offered them a drink in a bar, the Princesses kindly refused informing Mr Smith that it would be against their religion. This answer surprised him a lot and he was even reported to ask "What kind of a religion says you can't drink?" [New Castle News (INS), 3rd March 1935, page 2]. The next day, Princesses Myzejen, Ruhije and Maxhide travelled to Washington to meet Mrs Roosevelt in the White House. The short stay in the capital provoked some diplomatic anxiety within the government as the sisters were not the only royals in Washington at that time. The Sultan of Oman was also staying there at this period and it seems that some feared a possible protocol troubles in case the two royal parties met. This, however, did not happen and, after a few hours, the Princesses went back to New York. Then the time came for the very delicate diplomatic mission. The sisters arrived to Boston on 12th March amid heavy police protection. These draconian security measures were caused by a fear that anti-Zog demonstrations, which took place earlier that week, could repeat themselves. Thankfully all went perfectly well. The King’s sisters were greeted by a strong and enthusiastic crowd shouting “Long Live the Princesses”. As a sign of a symbolic reconciliation between Fan Noli and the Zogu family, the three Princesses attended a Sunday service presided by the Bishop at St. George's Albanian Orthodox church during which Noli even made a prayer for the Muslim King.
Although this exchange of polite gestures did not lead to Fan Noli’s return to Albania, it seemed to be a step in a good direction. During the rest of their stay, the Princesses visited many places of interest including a fashion show. Bouquets of flowers were even named after them during the 67th annual New England flower show in Lowell which the sisters attended on 17th March [The Lowell Sun, 18th March 1938, p. 20]. They also paid a visit to the Mayor of Boston, Maurice J. Tobin, and the Governor of Massachusetts, Charles F. Hurley [The Lowell Sun, 15th March 1938, p.3]. Princesses Myzejen, Ruhije and Maxhide enjoyed the Boston part of their stay so much that Mr Konitza even made a public comment on this matter. “The princesses like Boston very much, more than any other place in America that they have yet seen. Everyone is so hospitable, they like your food - yes, they even have little pots of Boston baked beans as often as twice a day" [The Lowell Sun, 14th March 1938, p.13] said the Minister. Unfortunately, a few days later, it was announced that the Princesses’ US trip would be cut short so that the ladies could have enough time for the preparations before their brother’s wedding. According to Mr Konitza, the ceremony was originally to take place in June but the date was eventually fixed for the end of April which meant that the Princesses would come home earlier than planned, leaving America without returning to Washington and visiting the West Coast as previously planned. They managed, however, to visit some more Albanian communities before their departure, attending for example a Sunday service at St John’s Chrysostom Albanian Orthodox Church in Philadelphia. On a lighter note, the sisters received an offer from a Hollywood film producer Samuel Goldwyn who wanted to turn them “into movie stars” [The Wisconsin State Journal, 21st March, p.2].
The royal tour came to an end on Wednesday, 23rd March 1938, when, after extensive shopping, the Princesses left the USA aboard the Queen Mary. Five days later, they arrived at Southampton and continued their journey to London, where Princess Myzejen got ill “with a severe chill” [The Times, 2nd April 1938, page 12, issue 47959]. However, it proved not to be a very serious matter and the royal party could soon proceed with their plans. During their stay in England, the Princesses visited their niece, Danush, at Heathfield School in Berkshire. Afterwards, through France and Italy, the sisters and their entourage came back to their homeland to take part in the royal wedding of King Zog and his Hungarian bride, Geraldine, on 27th April.
Only a few months after the three Princesses came home from their American journey, the press announced that Prince Abdul Moneim of Egypt had asked his cousin, King Farouk, for a permission to marry Princess Myzejen [The Ogden Standard Examiner (AP), 8th July 1938, p.1]. Three days later, the same source announced that the Egyptian Monarch had given his blessing to the union [The Charleston Gazette, 12th July/AP, 11th July 1938]. However, the marriage never materialized. A member of the Princess’s family claims that it was a media invention and that it had never been actually contemplated. In 1940, Prince Abdul Moneim (1899-1979) married Princess Nazlishah of Turkey. Princess Myzejen remained unmarried for the rest of her life.
The Italian invasion of Albania, started on 7th April 1939, only two days after King Zog’s only heir was born, turned the Princesses’ lives upside down. They joined their brother and his family, who flew from their homeland first to Greece and later to Turkey, where the King hoped to be allowed to remain. The Government did indeed agree on the Royal Family’s stay in this country but only if Zog promised to restrain himself from any kind of political activity. He did not accept this condition and the royal party continued their journey through Romania, Poland, Latvia, Scandinavia and Belgium to France. As if that was not enough, the family was stricken by yet another drama – Princess Ruhije’s serious illness. She complained of terrible pain in the stomach and she had to be operated in Paris. She did not have time to recuperate before the whole family was forced to leave the capital threatened by the Nazis. Ruhije, accompanied by a nurse and “bolstered with pillows” [Robyns 1987: 110] was transported in a car. Finally, in June 1940, the family sailed to the United Kingdom, where they spent nearly six years before departing to Egypt, in 1946, at the invitation of King Farouk.
Princess Adile was the only one of the sisters who did not join the family. She decided to stay in England with her daughter, Teri, who married Robert H. Cooper. Their wedding took place on 19th September 1946 in London.
Even in these already difficult circumstances, the fate had no pity for the Zogu family. Princess Ruhije’s state of health kept deteriorating. After her operations in Paris and London, she showed no desire to give up her fight with cancer but it soon became clear that she was dying. She passed away on 31st January 1948. Queen Geraldine described her sister-in-law’s final hours in the following way:
No one could bear to watch the agony that she went through. Her suffering in France was nothing compared to this. The martyrdom she is going through you would not believe. The doctors say that they have never seen such heroism and she still wants to live. When she was in the last agony of death her moans were so terrible that I went down to the chapel of the French hospital and prayed to God that she would have peace. Whilst I was there she was delivered, but it was awful as it was the first time that I saw death so close and it shocked and scared me. The poor family showed no resignation at all and were in an awful state of grief. The only one who kept them all normal, with his great kindness and patience, of course was my husband, but they are still sitting about all day in black veils. Yet their poor sister is surely happier in heaven. King Farouk gave orders for an official funeral so Princess Ruhije is buried in the citadel of Cairo [Robyns 1987: 149].
The late Princess’s nephew, Skender Zogu, also vividly recalls this sad period:
It wasn’t before October 1947 when we could rejoin the Royal Family in Alexandria and see our uncle, the King, our aunt, Queen Geraldine, our cousin, Prince Leka, and our aunts, Senije, Myzejen, Ruhije, Maxhide and Nafije. It was a great happiness for us. Queen Geraldine took responsibility for our education and Princess Senije for our accommodation. At this period, Princess Ruhije was very ill with cancer. When we paid her a visit, she first asked where were Mimi (my elder sister) and Bubi (myself) as we often used to stay with her in Durrës during holidays. What a pain it was to see her passing away little by little keeping above her bed the royal emblem (portrait of our national hero) and a photograph of her brother, King Zog, with the inscription “Homeland above all” [Atdheu mbi të gjitha]. She kissed us and said “Don’t forget your land”. A few weeks later, she died. [Private communication with Mr Skender Zogu]
The Royal Family kept a close relationship with the Albanian community in Egypt. Princesses Senije and Myzejen were especially active in this field. It also was an opportunity to meet other royal exiles who accepted King Farouk’s gracious hospitality, for example Queen Giovanna of Bulgaria, her children, King Simeon and Princess Maria Luisa, Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia etc. Unfortunately, the Egyptian Monarch, so willing in helping his royal friends, had to face his own political problems which lead to his deposition and the fall of the Monarchy in 1953. King Zog and his family remained in Egypt for two more years before deciding to settle in Cannes. A few months before this new stage of their exile, they had to bid farewell to another member of the clan. Princess Nafije died on 21st March 1955. Like her sister, Princess Ruhije, she was also laid to rest in Cairo.
Princess Adile joined her brother and sisters in Cannes. Together with Hyrijet Zogu, Prince Xhelal’s widow, Adile took over some of the household duties including preparation of traditional Albanian plates for the family and suite. After a period of considerate calm, the King’s health, already in decline for years, gave reason to a serious concern. When it was finally decided that the royal party would move to Paris, the King’s life was visibly coming to its end. He died on 9th April 1961. For the Princesses it was the end of the world.
Now, that the King was no more, the main unifying factor vanished. The obvious question concerned the future of the family.
Queen Geraldine promised to her dying husband that she would take care of his sisters and she knew something had to be done. The relations between the Queen and her sisters-in-law were not easy. Geraldine had a thorough Western education and progressive views. Although the Princesses’ way of life and education might be considered modern for Albanian standards, from the Queen’s perspective the Princesses could seem excessively traditional. This, of course, can hardly be treated as their fault. After Xhemal Pasha Zogu’s early death, their brother became not only head of the clan but also their foster father. They adored him and wanted to spend lots of time with him. This didn’t change after the King’s wedding. Uncomfortable at the beginning, it finally turned quite unbearable for Geraldine. The wife expected to have her husband exclusively for herself, from time to time. For the Princesses it was less obvious. They had always been part, if not a centre, of Zog’s life, why should that change now? Besides, it seems that the younger sisters were engaged at some point in their lives and that these engagements were broken off at the moment of their brother’s accession to the throne. We do not know what their real thoughts on this matter were but it is possible that they actually hoped to marry and found families. As their brother’s hopes to arrange grand marriages for them failed, it is not unreasonable to say that their remaining with him and his family was only too logical. After all, it might have not been entirely because of their own will that they did not marry the men they chose. This only is of course a speculation as there is no real proof concerning their love lives, their hopes, dreams and expectations. It is, however, a possible explanation of their attitude towards their brother and his family. Whatever the truth was, the situation became even more difficult during the exile. The sisters, with the exception of Princess Adile, had never had to care about financial or practical issues.
The Queen was naturally much more involved in dealing with these problems. All in all, as far as the relationship between Queen Geraldine and her sisters-in-law is concerned, it must have also been a clash of two different perspectives and cultures where both sides had problems in adapting to the new situation.
The King’s deteriorating health and his ultimate death brought Geraldine to the very end of her physical and mental strength. In order to regain her force, she had to spend the following period in a clinic. Afterwards, she and Prince Leka, proclaimed King Leka I of the Albanians by the Albanian National Assembly in exile, had to face the inevitable family problem – the fate of the four remaining Princesses. The eldest of the sisters, Adile, divided her time between England, where she lived with her daughter, Teri, and France. She spent her final years in Paris, living with her only unmarried child, Salih. She died in 1966 and was buried in a grave situated next to her brother’s tomb. Princesses Senije, Myzejen and Maxhide, however, had to be taken care of. After the King’s death and during their sister-in-law’s hospitalisation, they stayed in Paris, in a villa leased by their late brother.
Finally, a villa in Cannes was rented for the three Princesses and their servant. King Leka, who later moved with his mother to Madrid, kept sending his aunts a monthly allowance for the rest of their lives. Princesses Senije, Myzejen and Maxhide struggled with their sad existence for eight more years:
The days, weeks, months and years had slipped by drinking black coffee and smoking cigarettes in the seclusion of their apartment. Only occasional visits to the Casino in Monte Carlo broke the monotony of their rigid lives. When King Zog had died they had been robbed of their reason for living and never recovered from the shock. Perhaps of the whole family, Mussolini’s invasion had brought the most suffering to the six Princesses in this tragic Albanian saga [Robyns 1987: 178].
As mentioned before, Princess Ruhije passed away in Egypt, in 1948. During the next twenty years, she was followed by Nafije, in 1955, and Adile, in 1965. Princess Myzejen died in April 1969 and Princess Senije only less than a week later. As a result, their youngest sister, Maxhide, was said to have fallen into a coma from which she never recovered, dying on 12th October of the same year. All three Princesses were laid to rest in their brother’s tomb in Paris.
As one of King Zog’s biographers observed while commenting on the Princesses: “It would be hard to think of adult royal personages in twentieth-century Europe who, without being invalid, lived less in the public eye” [Tomes 2003: 135]. It is true that they could hardly be considered perfect and free of little eccentricities and faults. But it is also a fact that Princesses Adile, Nafije, Senije, Myzejen, Ruhije and Maxhide adored their brother, loved their country with its people, culture and traditions. Wouldn’t it be a pity if the six Zogu Princesses were completely forgotten?
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The article was originally published in Royalty Digest Quarterly, vol. 4/2010, p. 45-52.