King Zog

King Zog, as President

HM.King Zog was the founder of the modern Albanian State and first King of the Albanians, creating the first stable governmental institutions and consolidation of governance after decades of political turbulence.

The period of the Monarchy (1928-39) is seen as the golden era of the Albanian renaissance, and the start of National awaking for the Albanian region, including Kosova.

 King Zog in Brief:

 • Ahmet Bey Zogu was born on the 8th of October 1898 (officially 1895) in Burgajet-Mat.

• In 1903 he attended the Galata-Saray Lyceum in Istanbul.

• In 1908 Xhelal Pasha dies and Sadija Toptani heads the Zogolli family as regent.

• In 1911 he returns to Albania to lead the revolt of the Mat region against the Young Turks.

• In 1912 he battles the Montenegrin army in the Kakarraqi mountains, then is forced to defend the Mat valley surrounding Serbian Military forces.

Royal family in the villa of Durrres.

Royal family in the villa of Durrres.

• On the 28 November 1912, he takes part and defends the declaration of independence of Albania. He is forced once again to stop a Serbian incursion, until the Austrian ultimatum on October 18 1913.

• In 1914 he takes control of the city of Kruja, which was formally under rebel control.

• During February & March of 1916 he attempts to organize the National congress of Elbasan.

• From November 1916 until November of 1918 he becomes a hostage of the Austrian state: decorated by the emperor and given the rank of Colonel in the Austrian cavalry.

• In 1920 on the 21-31 of January he takes part in the Congress of Lushnje where he is appointed minister of Interior.

King Zog, 1920 during the conference of Lushnje

• On the 11 of February 1920 as minister of interior he proclaims Tirana as Albania's capital. During 1920 He also backs the "Vlora uprisings" and defeats the Italian forces in the City of Vlora forcing them to the Island of Sazan. Prevents war with Yugoslavia and retakes the city of Shkoder.

• Becomes a deputy of Parliament in April 1921 and a member of the constitutional assembly in December 1923.

 • He is charged as commander in chief of the national army in October and December of 1921, against separatist forces.

• December 2 1922 to February 25 1924 he was prime Minister and Minister of Interior.

• February 23 1924 he is wounded in Parliament by an assassin and resigns from his duties of government.

• June 10 1924 he leaves to Kosova after the Fanoli insurrection.

 • December 1924 he returns to Albania with international support, bringing to an end the insurrection.

• January 31 1925 Ahmet Zogu is elected President of the republic of Albania.

• September 1 1928 the constitutional assembly proclaims Albania an inheritable democratic parliamentary kingdom.

• In February 20 1913 while in Vienna for medical treatment he escaped an assassination attempt.

• In April 27 1938 King Zog married Countess Geraldine Apponyi.

• April 7 the fascists invade Albania

• April 9 1939 King Zog moves to Greece

• May 2 1939 he moves to Turkey

• August 1939 he moves to Paris and leaves Bordeaux, France, 8hrs before the German invasion on the 27 of June 1940 to England.

• In 1946 he moves to Egypt, 1951 he visits the United States of America

• In 1948-1951 King Zog becomes one of three leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.

• In 1949 before the Arab Israeli war he gains the support of the Arab league to resist the communist regime.

• In 1954 he organizes covert operations against the communist regime with the support of the allies, betrayed by a Russian spy (Kim Phyllby).

• July 1955 he returns to France to settle in Cane.

King Zog and Queen Geraldine

The proclamation as King of the Albanians:

 During 1920s, Albania was experiencing extended periods of political turmoil and instability. The parliament decided to take under consideration the proposal made by the deputies of Skrapar, the issue of constitutional change. Immediately after the early elections on August 25, 1928, it was proposed to change the governing structure. The Statute Commission was held, which proposed the regime change, from Republic into Monarchy. This proposal was voted on August 30, 1928 and the Constitutional Assembly proclaimed Albania as a Hereditary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy. On 1 September, 1928 the Constitutional Assembly proclamation was put into effect. After this proclamation, the parliament created a commission which would communicate the decision to His Majesty three times, to offer Him the Royal Throne.

HM King Zog, in Vienna

 After He accepted the Throne, His Majesty Zog I, King of Albanians took His oath on the Bible and Quran, with these words: "I, Zogu , King of the Albanians, at this very moment I step foot on the Throne of the Albanian Kingdom and, undertaking the Monarchy Power , I swear to the Almighty power to preserve the National Union, the Independence of Land and State. I swear to be loyal to the Statute and act according to its articles and laws in power, considering, always the well-being of the people. Lord may help me"

Quotes:

•King Zog was described by British Conservative politician Julian Amery as the cleverest man he had ever met.

• Aubrey Herbert who met him in 1913, when Zog was only eighteen, described him as "a reader of Shakespeare and a fine fighting man".

•  Zog was said to have regularly consumed 200 cigarettes a day giving him a possible claim to the dubious title of the world's heaviest smoker in 1929.

Death:

 HM King Zog died in 'Foch" Hospital in Paris, on 8 April 1961.

On the 17th of November 2012, the Albanian state held an official ceremony for the Reburial of HM King Zog at the newly build Royal family Mausoleum in Tirana.